Glossary

Glossary

G8

The G8 is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States.

G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of WMD

Intends to secure, dismantle and dispose of weapons of mass destruction and related materials and facilities in the former Soviet Union. The G8 is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. The G-8 Global Partnership was initiated at the 2002 G-8 summit at Kananaskis (Alberta, Canada). Under the Global Partnership, the G-8 states, in addition to a number of other supporting states mainly in Europe, have pledged to provide over US$ 20 billion over a period of ten years to accomplish these efforts.

Gamma radiation

A type of high energy radiation which may be emitted in the process of spontaneous disintegration of unstable atomic nuclei.

Gamma ray spectrum

A plot showing the measured presence of radionuclides and there quantities in a given sample.  Along the horizontal axis of the plot radionuclides can be identified by their emission of energy. The peaks provide information on the quantity of the radioactive element in the sample.

Gamma spectroscopy

A method to measure gamma-ray quantities and energies. It uses a detector that is capable to detect gamma radiation and to quantify the energy of each detection event. This facilitates the identification of the radioactive elements present in a sample.

Garcia Robles, Alfonso

From Mexico was one of the major architects of the establishment of the nuclear-weapon free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Treaty of Tlatelolco. Garcia Robles also played a central role in the work to promote general disarmament at the UN. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982 because of his outstanding work in the field of disarmament.

GCI

Same as Global Communications Infrastructure

Geodetic system/data

Also called geodetics, this is a branch of the earth sciences and a discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravity field, in a three-dimensional time varying space. Besides the Earth's gravity field, geodesists study also geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides and polar motion. 

Geophone

A type of seismometer to measure seismic waves by converting ground movement into electric voltage.  Geophones are less sensitive than other seismometers. They are used during on-site inspections, particularly when reflections of artificially created seismic waves are measured to conduct active seismic surveys.

Gigabecquerel

One Becquerel (Bq) is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity. A gigabecquerel is one billion, or 1000.000.000 becquerel.

Gigabecquerels

One Becquerel (Bq) is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. The becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize with Pierre and Marie Curie in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity. A gigabecquerel is one billion, or 1000.000.000 becquerel.

Global Communications Infrastructure

The worldwide communication system to enable data to be transmitted from the International Monitoring System (IMS) facilities to the International Data Centre (IDC), and for the dissemination of IMS data and IDC data bulletins to the Member States.

Global Positioning System

Enables a GPS receiver to determine its location, speed, direction, and time. Practical uses include installing them in cell phones, vehicles, boats, aircraft, etc., which can save lives by locating callers in distress and putting them into commercial vehicle fleets to improve operations through better and faster dispatcher deployment. The world’s only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense and is officially named NAVSTAR GPS. It utilizes a constellation of at least 24 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals. (Source: Wikipedia)

GPS

Same as Global Positioning System

GPS antenna

Device used to connect an International Monitoring System station to the World Global Positioning System (GPS) network, allowing the station to receive data on current location and time.

Group of Scientific Experts

A group of international scientists that started in 1976 to research monitoring technologies and data analysis methods for the verification of a nuclear test ban. The GSE, set up at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was essential in laying the scientific groundwork for and during the CTBT negotiations in 1994-96. 

Group of Scientific Experts Technical Test (GSETT)

Technical experiments conducted by the Ad-hoc Group of Scientific Experts. This was done to test monitoring technologies and data analysis methods for the verification of a nuclear test ban. The first test, GSETT-1, took place in 1984, the second one, GSETT-2, in 1991 and the third one, GSETT-3, in 1995. All tests, but in particular GSETT-3, contributed significantly to the development of a monitoring system and data analysis centre for the CTBTO.

GSE

This Group of (international) Scientific Experts started in 1976 to research monitoring technologies and data analysis methods for the verification of a nuclear test ban. The GSE, set up at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was essential in laying the scientific groundwork for and during the CTBT negotiations in 1994-96.

Gun-type fission bomb

Same as Gun-type weapon.

Gun-type nuclear explosion

A nuclear explosion in which two or more pieces of fissionable material, each less than a critical mass, are brought together very rapidly so as to form a supercritical mass which can explode as the result of a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction.

Gun-type weapon

A nuclear bomb in which two or more pieces of fissionable material, each less than a critical mass, are brought together very rapidly so as to form a supercritical mass which can explode as the result of a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction.