Glossary

Cairo Declaration on the Denuclearization of Africa

Adopted by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1964, called upon all states to respect the continent of Africa as a nuclear-weapon-free zone. It committed the African states to negotiate an international agreement, to be concluded under the auspices of the United Nations, not to manufacture or control atomic weapons. The declaration was submitted to the United Nations General Assembly during its session of 1965.

Calibration

Determination, by measurement or comparison to a standard, of parameters needed to properly interpret recorded signals. In the case of instrument calibration (for all four International Monitoring System technologies), the parameters typically calibrated are those associated with the instrument response or transfer function (e.g., detector or other sensor efficiencies and/or gains, amplifier gains, bandwidths, delays, phase shifts, linearity, etc.).

Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

Established by Australia in November 1995, the commission was created to develop ideas and propose practical steps to create a nuclear weapon free world, including the related problem of maintaining stability and security during the transitional period and after this goal is achieved. On August 31, 1996, the Commission presented its findings to the Australian government, which then submitted the Canberra Report to the UN General Assembly and to the Conference on Disarmament.

Capacity Development Initiative

Launched in 2010, The Capacity Development Initiative (CDI) is a key component of the CTBTO’s training and education activities focused on building and maintaining the necessary capacity in the technical, scientific, legal and political aspects of the Treaty and its verification regime. Specialized training courses combine lectures in Vienna, which are also live-streamed and video archived, with an innovative e-learning platform that is expanding the pool of expertise beyond the traditional stakeholders, especially in the developing world and among women. This initiative increases active engagement on the critical issues underpinning the Treaty while promoting its entry into force and universalization.

CBMs

Same as Confidence-Building Measures

CD

Same as Conference on Disarmament

CDI

Launched in 2010, The Capacity Development Initiative (CDI) is a key component of the CTBTO’s training and education activities focused on building and maintaining the necessary capacity in the technical, scientific, legal and political aspects of the Treaty and its verification regime. Specialized training courses combine lectures in Vienna, which are also live-streamed and video archived, with an innovative e-learning platform that is expanding the pool of expertise beyond the traditional stakeholders, especially in the developing world and among women. This initiative increases active engagement on the critical issues underpinning the Treaty while promoting its entry into force and universalization.

Central and Eastern Europe NWFZ

In July 1996, Belarus and Ukraine called for a Central and Eastern European nuclear-weapon-free zone. However, several countries in the area were interested in joining NATO and opposed to the proposal. Poland at the 1998 NPT Preparatory Committee, in a letter addressed to the chairman of the PrepCom on behalf of nine of the key states (Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia) which would comprise such a zone, opposed the idea as "incompatible with our sovereign resolve to contribute to, and benefit from the new European security architecture...;"

Central Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (CANWFZ)

The Almaty Declaration issued by the five presidents of the Central Asian states on 27 February 1997, endorsed the creation of the CANWFZ, which prohibits, inter alia, the testing of nuclear weapons. The Uzbek president first proposed the establishment of the CANWFZ in 1993 at the United Nations General Assembly. The five states agreed upon the draft treaty text in September 2002 and all five signed it on 8 September 2006. CANWFZ will include all the five Central Asian states: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Kyrgystan and Uzbekistan deposited their instruments of ratification in March and April 2007, respectively. 

Central processing facility

The facility, usually a building, located within the host country of the array(s), which receives data from the remote collection arrays in order to transmit it to the CTBTO:s International Data Centre in Vienna, Austria.

Central recording facility

The facility, usually a building, located within the host country of the array(s), which receives data from the remote collection arrays in order to transmit it to the CTBTO:s International Data Centre in Vienna, Austria.

Certification

The process of assessing whether a station meets defined requirements and specifications of the International Monitoring System regarding equipment operation and instrumentation, associated facilities, and operational performance pertaining to a seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, or radionuclide monitoring station.  Successful certification leads to the formal acceptance of the station into the International Monitoring System.

Certification visits

Visits made by CTBTO staff for purposes of site inspection, equipment installation and upgrades, warranty matters or international monitoring system station certification.

certified

Certification is the process of assessing whether a station meets defined requirements and specifications of the International Monitoring System regarding equipment operation and instrumentation, associated facilities, and operational performance pertaining to a seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, or radionuclide monitoring station.  Successful certification leads to the formal acceptance of the station into the International Monitoring System.

Chain reaction (fission)

The splitting of the nucleus of a heavy atom into two lighter nuclei. The process is accompanied by the release of large amounts of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation and kinetic energy of the fission products. Nuclear fission is used for the production of nuclear energy, but also for nuclear weapons.

Challenge inspection

An inspection triggered by a suspected violation of a treaty or agreement. For example, under the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE), the challenge inspection provision allows parties to inspect a specific and limited area beyond those sites already listed. This provision increases the likelihood of detecting weapons at sites not declared in the data exchanged under the treaty. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) allows for a team of international inspectors to inspect on a very short notice a party's facility suspected of violating the CWC. Although not explicitly labeled as such, on-site inspections under the CTBT are challenge inspections, as they can only be carried out upon request by a State Party.  The State Party subjected to an on-site inspection cannot refuse to allow it to take place.

Challenge inspections

Inspections triggered by a suspected violation of a treaty or agreement. For example, under the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE), the challenge inspection provision allows parties to inspect a specific and limited area beyond those sites already listed. This provision increases the likelihood of detecting weapons at sites not declared in the data exchanged under the treaty. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) allows for a team of international inspectors to inspect on a very short notice a party's facility suspected of violating the CWC. Although not explicitly labeled as such, on-site inspections under the CTBT are challenge inspections, as they can only be carried out upon request by a State Party. The State Party subjected to an on-site inspection cannot refuse to allow it to take place.

CIRUS heavy water reactor

CIRUS (Canada India Research U.S.) is a 40 MW reactor supplied by Canada to India in 1954. The United States supplied the heavy water used as a moderator.

Cobalt bombs

It is not known if any such weapon has ever been built, but the idea, first proposed by physicist Leó Szilárd, is to create a weapon that produces vast amounts of persisting radioactive fallout by surrounding the core of the weapon with cobalt or some other salting agent. This is a type of “doomsday device” that could be built using present knowledge and would force all humans to remain shielded underground for more than five years were it to be used.

Cold War

The post-World War II struggle between the capitalist United States and its allies and the communist Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its allies which lasted from the mid-1940s until the end of the 1980s.

Communication node

Intermediate data collection point where data are collected for forwarding to the CTBTO International Data Centre in Vienna.

Communication nodes

Intermediate data collection points where data is collected for forwarding to the CTBTO International Data Centre in Vienna.

Compliance matrix

The set of requirements as defined in the CTBT requiring data acquisition and transmission according to set standards of quality. The process of station certification ensures that stations meet the technical specifications as laid out in the compliance matrix.

Compliance provisions

Enforcement provisions included in a treaty or legally binding agreement to ensure that parties abide by the requirements or restrictions set out in the treaty. Compliance provisions may include inspection measures to confront state parties suspected of treaty violations and lists of sanctions that can be imposed on any state party that has violated its obligations.

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

This international Treaty prohibits all nuclear explosions on Earth. A global alarm system is being established to monitor compliance with the Treaty. 337 facilities world wide will upon completion monitor the under ground, the atmosphere, and the under waters for any sign of a nuclear explosion. It was negotiated between 1994 and 1996, and opened for signature on 24 September 1996 at the UN General Assembly in New York.

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

Organization set up to implement the provisions of the CTBT. CTBTO’s activities include the establishment of a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Treaty and the promotion of the CTBT signature and ratification for early entry into force. Short form for the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the CTBTO was established on 19 November 1996 and consists of a plenary body of State Signatories and the Provisional Technical Secretariat. CTBTO is also the formal name for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) which will be established after entry into force of the CTBT.

Conference on Disarmament

Established by the international community in 1979 in Geneva to negotiate multilateral arms control and disarmament agreements. It has negotiated the Chemical Weapons Convention from 1980-1993 and the CTBT from 1993-1996. The CD succeeded the Ten-Nation Committee on Disarmament (1960), the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament (1962-68) and the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (1969-78). While not formally a UN organization, it is linked to the UN through a Personal Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General who serves as Secretary General of the Conference. As of March 2008, the CD had 65 member states, with a further 37 having observer status.

Confidence-building measure

In general, CBMs refer to actions taken to reduce fear of an attack by both (or more) parties in a situation of tension with or without physical conflict. The term is most often used in the context of international politics. CBMs normally precede the negotiation of formal arms control agreements or are added to arms control agreements to strengthen them. Specifically in the CTBT context, CBMs are tools that provide for an exchange of data and information between signatory States to resolve compliance concerns arising from possible misinterpretation of verification data relating to explosions. Adversarial states can use the tools to reduce tensions and avert the possibility of military conflict. Such tools could include communication agreements (e.g. "hot lines" or direct lines between capitals), constraints (e.g. demilitarized zones), transparency (e.g. data exchanges), calibration of IMS monitoring stations and verification (e.g. on-site inspections) measures.

Confidence-building measures

In general, CBMs refer to actions taken to reduce fear of an attack by both (or more) parties in a situation of tension with or without physical conflict. The term is most often used in the context of international politics. CBMs normally precede the negotiation of formal arms control agreements or are added to arms control agreements to strengthen them. Specifically in the CTBT context, CBMs are tools that provide for an exchange of data and information between signatory States to resolve compliance concerns arising from possible misinterpretation of verification data relating to explosions. Adversarial states can use the tools to reduce tensions and avert the possibility of military conflict. Such tools could include communication agreements (e.g. "hot lines" or direct lines between capitals), constraints (e.g. demilitarized zones), transparency (e.g. data exchanges), calibration of IMS monitoring stations and verification (e.g. on-site inspections) measures.

Continuation Period Techniques

Continuation period techniques are mainly geophysical techniques, which will be used in those areas where findings indicate the need for further examinations.  The term “continuation period techniques” indicates that these techniques can only be used when suggested by the first inspection report.  The inspection team has to provide this report, which the Treaty terms the progress inspection report, no later than 25 days after the inspection was approved by the Executive Council.

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

Obliges parties to ensure that during international transport across their territory or on ships or aircraft under their jurisdiction, nuclear materials for peaceful purposes are protected at the agreed levels. These nuclear materials could be plutonium, uranium (U-235, U-233 and irradiated fuel). The convention also provides a framework for international cooperation on the protection, recovery and return of stolen nuclear material and on the application of criminal sanctions against persons who commit crimes involving nuclear material. It opened for signature on March 3, 1980 and entered into force on February 8, 1987. As of January 2008, there were 133 parties (including EURATOM) to the convention; in addition, 45 states had signed but not ratified the convention. 

Coolant

A substance circulated through a nuclear reactor to remove or transfer heat. An ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, and is chemically inert, neither causing nor promoting corrosion of the cooling system. The coolant can either keep its phase and stay liquid or gaseous, or can undergo a phase change, with the latent heat adding to the cooling efficiency. The most commonly used coolant is water whose high heat capacity and low cost makes it a suitable heat-transfer medium. It is usually used with additives, like corrosion inhibitors and antifreezes. Other coolants include heavy water, air, carbon dioxide, helium, liquid sodium and a sodium-potassium alloy.

Coordinated Universal Time

(UTC) is the international basis of civil and scientific time, implemented in 1964.  UTC is widely broadcast by precisely coordinated radio signals; these radio time signals ultimately furnish the basis for the setting of all public and private clocks.  Since 1 January 1972, UTC has been obtained from atomic clocks. The unit of UTC is the atomic second (SI). See also Absolute timing accuracy. 

Core

The central portion of a nuclear reactor containing the fuel elements, moderator, neutron poisons, and support structures.

Critical mass

The minimum amount of concentrated fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction.

Cruise missile

An unmanned self-propelled guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift for most of its flight path. A cruise missile may deliver a conventional or nuclear warhead.

CTBT

Same as Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

CTBTO

The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, the organization set up to implement the provisions of the CTBT. The CTBTO’s activities include the establishment of a global verification regime to monitor compliance with the Treaty and the promotion of the CTBT signature and ratification for early entry into force. Short form for the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the CTBTO was established on 19 November 1996 and consists of a plenary body of State Signatories and the Provisional Technical Secretariat. CTBTO is also the formal name for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) which will be established after entry into force of the CTBT.

Cuban Missile Crisis

The 1962 military confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba when the Cold War threatened to become a nuclear war. The Russians call it the "Caribbean Crisis," while the Cubans call it the "October Crisis." Like the Berlin Blockade, it was one of the major confrontations of the Cold War. The actual confrontation began on 14 October 1962, when US reconnaissance photographs taken by an American U-2 spy plane revealed missile bases being built in Cuba, in response to similar US bases built at the Turkish-Soviet border. After a bellicose confrontation on 28 October 1962 and intercession of UN Secretary-General, U Thant, both US President John F. Kennedy and Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove their respective nuclear weapons.

Curie

A curie (symbol Ci) is a old unit of radioactivity, defined as 1 Ci = 3.7 × 10 to the power of 10 decays per second. The unit is named after the pioneers of radiology, Marie and Pierre Curie. The common unit today for measuring radioactivity is becquerel (symbol Bq), named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize with the Curies in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity.

Curies

The curie (symbol Ci) is a old unit of radioactivity, defined as 1 Ci = 3.7 × 10 to the power of 10 decays per second. The unit is named after the pioneers of radiology, Marie and Pierre Curie. The common unit today for measuring radioactivity is becquerel (symbol Bq), named after Henri Becquerel, who shared a Nobel Prize with the Curies in 1903 for their work in discovering radioactivity.