Glossary

EIF

Same as Entry into Force

Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee (ENDC)

The predecessor to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, the ENDC existed from 1962-1968, and hosted most of the negotiations of the Nonproliferation Treaty. It consisted of five Western countries, five Eastern (Soviet bloc) countries, and eight non-aligned (in neither the U.S. nor Soviet camp) countries, with the United States and Soviet Union as co-chairs.

Electromagnetic pulse

A sharp pulse of radio-frequency (long wavelength) radiation produced when an explosion occurs in an asymmetrical environment, especially at or near the earth's surface or at high altitudes. The intense electric and magnetic fields can damage unprotected electrical and electronic equipment over a large area. It is now thought that a single high-altitude blast over the United States could seriously disrupt the nation's communications system, and perhaps shut down the entire power grid. At present, however, there is no known way of providing complete protection against the effect.

Electromagnetic pulses

Sharp pulses of radio-frequency (long wavelength) radiation produced when an explosion occurs in an asymmetrical environment, especially at or near the earth's surface or at high altitudes. The intense electric and magnetic fields can damage unprotected electrical and electronic equipment over a large area. It is now thought that a single high-altitude blast over the United States could seriously disrupt the nation's communications system, and perhaps shut down the entire power grid. At present, however, there is no known way of providing complete protection against the effect.

EMP

Same as electromagnetic pulse

Enriched uranium

Uranium with an increased concentration of the isotope U-235. Natural uranium contains 0.7 percent U-235, whereas nuclear weapons typically require uranium enriched to 90 percent or more U-235. Nuclear power plant fuel typically uses uranium enriched to 3-5 percent U-235, material that is not sufficiently enriched to be used for nuclear weapons.

Enrico Fermi

Italian-born American physicist who was one of the chief architects of the nuclear age. Born in 1901, Fermi is best known for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics. He was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for the discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons. Fermi was placed in charge of the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago in1942, where his team produced the first nuclear chain reaction. In 1944, the project was moved to New Mexico, and on July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was detonated at Alamogordo Air Base. The element Fermium, which is 100th in the periodic table, was named after Enrico Fermi.

Enter into force

Entry into force is the moment at which all provisions of a treaty are legally binding on its parties. Every treaty specifies preconditions for its entry into force. For example, the Nonproliferation Treaty specified that it would enter into force after the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States (i.e. the Depositary governments) and 40 other countries ratified the Treaty, an event that occurred on 5 March 1970. The CTBT has an unusual entry-into-force provision. The Treaty will enter into force once 44 specified countries have ratified it. These countries possessed nuclear reactors or research reactors in 1996 when the Treaty was negotiated.

Entered into force

Entry into force is the moment at which all provisions of a treaty are legally binding on its parties. Every treaty specifies preconditions for its entry into force. For example, the Nonproliferation Treaty specified that it would enter into force after the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States (i.e. the Depositary governments) and 40 other countries ratified the Treaty, an event that occurred on 5 March 1970. The CTBT has an unusual entry-into-force provision. The Treaty will enter into force once 44 specified countries have ratified it. These countries possessed nuclear reactors or research reactors in 1996 when the Treaty was negotiated.

Enters into force

Entry into force is the moment at which all provisions of a treaty are legally binding on its parties. Every treaty specifies preconditions for its entry into force. For example, the Nonproliferation Treaty specified that it would enter into force after the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States (i.e. the Depositary governments) and 40 other countries ratified the Treaty, an event that occurred on 5 March 1970. The CTBT has an unusual entry-into-force provision. The Treaty will enter into force once 44 specified countries have ratified it. These countries possessed nuclear reactors or research reactors in 1996 when the Treaty was negotiated.

Entry into force

The moment at which all provisions of a treaty are legally binding on its parties. Every treaty specifies preconditions for its entry into force. For example, the Nonproliferation Treaty specified that it would enter into force after the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States (i.e. the Depositary governments) and 40 other countries ratified the Treaty, an event that occurred on 5 March 1970. The CTBT has an unusual entry-into-force provision. The Treaty will enter into force once 44 specified countries have ratified it. These countries possessed nuclear reactors or research reactors in 1996 when the Treaty was negotiated.

European Atomic Energy Community

Launched in 1958 to facilitate the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes within the European Community.

Event

In the CTBT context, an “event” is any physical occurrence that is registered by the International Monitoring System, be it a natural or a man made event, an earthquake or an explosion, a chemical or a nuclear explosion. With regards to determining the nature of an event, Members States make the final judgement.

Events

In the CTBT context, an “event” is any physical occurrence that is registered by the International Monitoring System, be it a natural or a man made event, an earthquake or an explosion, a chemical or a nuclear explosion. With regards to determining the nature of an event, Members States make the final judgement.