Glossary

IAEA

Charged both with the control of nuclear technology to prevent nuclear weapons proliferation and the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Founded in 1957 and based in Vienna, Austria, the IAEA is an autonomous international organization under the United Nations with 144 member states, as of March 2008. Article III of the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) requires non-nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accept safeguards administered by the IAEA. The 2005 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the IAEA.

IAEA Information Circular 153 (INFCIRC/153)

Created the full-scope safeguards system whereby any non-nuclear weapon state party to the NPT agrees to establish and maintain a system of accounting and control of all nuclear material under its jurisdiction. Accordingly, non-nuclear weapon states who are party to or who have signed but not ratified the NPT must conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA. The full name of this International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) document is "The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)." It was established by the IAEA in April 1970 after the NPT entered into force.

IAEA Information Circular 540 (INFCIRC/540)

Grants IAEA inspectors additional physical access to sites of IAEA member states where nuclear material is or could be present, expands the use of unannounced inspections, and allows for collection of environmental samples. The full name of this document approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in May 1997, is the "Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards." It supplements the INFCIRC/153. The provisions in the protocol are also known as the "Program 93+2".

IAEA Information Circular 66 (INFCIRC/66)

The model safeguards agreement approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency in February 1965 to safeguard individual nuclear facilities. The guidelines were later revised to include reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants. It was most widely employed prior to the advent of the 1968 Nonproliferation Treaty that required full-scope safeguards.

IDC

Collects information from the International Monitoring System facilities and processes and analyses this data and sends it to Member States for their review and judgment. Thus, the IDC supports the verification responsibilities of Member States by providing data services and products necessary for effective global monitoring. It is located at the CTBTO’s headquarters in Vienna, Austria.

IDC Testbed

The database used by the International Data Centre for testing the data flow of monitoring stations that have not yet been integrated into the network. The message system is the formal exchange of information between the monitoring station and the International Data Centre.

IDC Testbed and Message System

The database used by the International Data Centre for testing the data flow of monitoring stations that have not yet been integrated into the network. The message system is the formal exchange of information between the monitoring station and the International Data Centre.

Implosion device

Same as implosion type (nuclear weapon/bomb).

Implosion type (nuclear weapon/bomb)

A type of nuclear weapon or bomb which, although more difficult to assemble than the simplest type of nuclear bomb, the “gun-type”, is more efficient and is essential for exploiting the advantages of fusion.  A chain reaction is created in the fissile material which sends shock waves inwards to the core of the bomb, which in turn leads to an implosion. The first nuclear bomb ever exploded, the “Trinity” test near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, was an implosion type weapon. The bomb set off over Nagasaki, Japan, on 9 August 1945, was also an implosion plutonium device.

Implosion-type

A type of nuclear weapon or bomb which, although more difficult to assemble than the simplest type of nuclear bomb, the “gun-type”, is more efficient and is essential for exploiting the advantages of fusion.  A chain reaction is created in the fissile material which sends shock waves inwards to the core of the bomb, which in turn leads to an implosion. The first nuclear bomb ever exploded, the “Trinity” test near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, was an implosion type weapon. The bomb set off over Nagasaki, Japan, on 9 August 1945, was also an implosion plutonium device.

Improvised nuclear device (IND)

A weapon that uses a simple, untested design to attempt to create a nuclear explosion.

IMS

International Monitoring System. The IMS is a network of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories established worldwide to monitor the underground, under water and the atmosphere for any sign of a nuclear explosion. See International Monitoring System.

IMS Testbed

The database used by the International Monitoring System for testing the data flow of monitoring stations that have not yet been integrated into the system.

Independently targeted warheads

Nuclear warheads lauched together by a single booster rocket that can be aimed at independent targets.

Infrasonic array

An aggregation of elements within a relatively close area that collects infrasound data. An array of several elements actually boosts the ability of the CTBTO to use the data to localize and analyze seismic events.

Infrasonic waves

Acoustic waves with very low frequencies below the frequency band audible to the human ear. Infrasound waves are produced by a range of natural phenomena - such as explosions volcanoes, earthquakes, meteors, storms and auroras – and by man-made activities – such as nuclear and chemical explosions as well as aircraft and rocket launches.

Infrasound

Infrasound is sound with a frequency too low to be heard by the human ear. The study of such sound waves is sometimes referred to as infrasonics, covering sounds beneath the lowest limits of human hearing (about 16 or 17 hertz) down to 0.001 hertz. This frequency range is utilized by seismographs for monitoring earthquakes. Infrasound is characterized by an ability to cover long distances and get around obstacles with little dissipation. It is produced by a variety of natural and man-made sources. Exploding volcanoes, earthquakes, meteors, storms and auroras are among the strongest natural sources. Man-made sources of infrasound include nuclear, mining-related and large chemical explosions, as well as aircraft and rocket launches.

Infrasound monitoring

A network that detects very low frequency sound waves in the atmosphere produced by natural and man-made events. The sound waves are inaudible to the human ear and can originate from atmospheric explosions, explosive volcanoes, meteorites entering the atmosphere, rocket launches and other phenomena. See also the following terms: nocturnal boundary layer, daytime convection, pipe array system and primary monitoring passband.

Infrasound network

A network of 60 infrasound stations that use microbarometers to detect low-frequency sound waves in the atmosphere. The International Data Centre uses the data to distinguish between atmospheric explosions and natural phenomena or man-made phenomena. These include meteorites, volcanoes, rocket launches and supersonic aircraft.

Infrasound station

A monitoring station consisting of four to eight infrasound array elements, arranged in different geometric patterns. Stations located in windy locations on isolated islands require more array elements to improve their detection capacity. At each array element, microbarometers measure the pressure changes in the air produced by infrasonic waves.

Infrasound stations

A monitoring station consisting of four to eight infrasound array elements, arranged in different geometric patterns. Stations located in windy locations on isolated islands require more array elements to improve their detection capacity. At each array element, microbarometers measure the pressure changes in the air produced by infrasonic waves.

Infrasound waves

Acoustic waves with very low frequencies below the frequency band audible to the human ear.  Infrasound waves are produced by a range of natural phenomena - such as explosions volcanoes, earthquakes, meteors, storms and auroras – and by man-made activities – such as nuclear and chemical explosions as well as aircraft and rocket launches.

INGE

International Noble Gas Experiment. INGE was established to test the detection and measuring of radionuclide noble gases, a by-product of nuclear explosions. Four different systems were included into this experiment: Russia’s ARIX (Analyzer of Xenon Radioisotopes); the United States’ ARSA (Automated Radioxenon Sampler-Analyzer); Sweden’s SAUNA (Swedish Unattended Noble gas Analyzer); and France’s SPALAX (Systéme de Prélèvements et d’Analyse en Ligne. d’Air pour quantifier le Xénon).

Inspection team

A team of inspectors and inspection assistants designated to conduct an on-site inspection.

Inspector

A person chosen and trained for conducting an on-site inspection in case of a suspected nuclear test. The CTBTO Technical Secretariat shall provide training for inspectors.

Inspectors

A person chosen and trained for conducting an on-site inspection in case of a suspected nuclear test. The CTBTO Technical Secretariat shall provide training for inspectors.

Instrument of ratification

Is a formal document that a State Signatory that intends to ratify the CTBT must deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who is the depositary of the treaty. This is in accordance with Article XVI of the CTBT.

Interactive Review

The examination of events by a human analyst.  The basis for interactive review is the third automatically produced list of waveform data based events, Standard Event List 3 or SEL3. The analysts’ intervention results in a refinement of analysis results.  Erroneous results of automatic processing are reviewed and, if needed, corrected.  The outcome of the interactive review is listed in the Reviewed Event Bulletin, REB.

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty

This treaty between the former Soviet Union and the United States, signed on 8 December 1987, entered into force on 1 June 1988. It aimed to eliminate and ban all ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with a range of 300-3,400 miles (500-5,500 kilometers). The treaty required the Soviet Union and the United States and to conduct inspections at each other's sites during the elimination of treaty-limited items (TLI). By May 1991, all intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles, launchers, related support equipment, and support structures were eliminated.

International Atomic Energy Agency

Is charged both with the control of nuclear technology to prevent nuclear weapons proliferation and the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Founded in 1957 and based in Vienna, Austria, the IAEA is an autonomous international organization under the United Nations with 144 member states, as of March 2008. Article III of the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) requires non-nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accept safeguards administered by the IAEA. The 2005 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the IAEA. 

International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

Addresses the unlawful possession or use of nuclear devices or materials by non-state actors. Originally proposed by Russia, the Nuclear Terrorism Convention was first adopted by the UN General Assembly on 13 April 2005. It opened for signature on September 14, 2005 and entered into force in July 2007. The Convention requires all “States Parties to make every effort to adopt appropriate measures to ensure the protection of radioactive material, taking into account the relevant recommendations and functions of the Agency”. Its ultimate intention is to protect against attacks on a range of targets, including nuclear power plants and reactors.

International Data Centre

Collects information from the International Monitoring System facilities and processes and analyses this data and sends it to Member States for their review and judgment. Thus, the IDC supports the verification responsibilities of Member States by providing data services and products necessary for effective global monitoring. It is located at the CTBTO’s headquarters in Vienna, Austria.

International Data Centre product

Print outs of seismological, infrasound and hydroacoustic events, as well as the presence of radionuclides and noble gases in the atmosphere detected through evaluation of IMS transmitted data.

International Monitoring System

Part of the Verification Regime of the CTBT, the IMS is a network of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories established worldwide to monitor the underground, under water and the atmosphere for any sign of a nuclear explosion. See also IMS.

International Noble Gas Experiment

Established in 1999 as an informal expert's group to test how noble gases that seep out from an underground nuclear explosion can be measured. Because no commercially available noble gas monitoring systems that met the specifications of the CTBTO existed at the time, the INGE was created to design, develop, build, install and test such machines. It originally consisted of research and development (R&D) groups from Germany, France, Russia, Sweden and the United States, as well as personnel from the CTBTO’s Provisional Technical Secretariat. Four measurement systems were developed: ARIX (Analyzer of Xenon Radioisotopes) by Russia; ARSA (Automated Radioxenon Sampler Analyzer) by the United States; SAUNA (Swedish Unattended Noble gas Analyzer) by Sweden; and SPALAX (Systéme de Prélèvements et d’Analyse en Ligne. d’Air pour quantifier le Xénon) by France. All four had favorable results that met the CTBTO’s minimum specifications; three (i.e. ARIX, SAUNA and SPALAX) were in use as of 2008.

Intra-array power distribution system

A network or system configured to disperse energy necessary to run the arrays between multiple array sites. Power systems are important and often difficult issues for seismic stations, as many stations are in remote places throughout the world.

ISN and GCI

Infrasound Network (ISN) and Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI). The collection of devices involved in collecting and transmitting data to the International Data Centre in Vienna, Austria.

Isotope

Isotopes are different forms of an element having the same number of protons in their nuclei but a different number of neutrons.  Isotopes of the same element have identical chemical properties but slightly different densities.

Isotopes

Isotopes are different forms of an element having the same number of protons in their nuclei but a different number of neutrons.  Isotopes of the same element have identical chemical properties but slightly different densities.