Glossary

Manifold

A part of an infrasound array that sits at the centre of the array’s pipe structures. It connects all inlet ports of the pipe structure and passes infrasound waves on to a microbarometer, which measures and records these waves. The array set-up serves to increase the strength of the infrasound signal against disturbing wind noise.

Mass centering

The process of calibrating a mass within a seismometer in order to prepare the instrument for proper operation.

Megaton

The energy equivalent released by 1,000 kilotons (1,000,000 tons) of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The megaton is typically used as the unit of measurement to express the amount of energy released by a nuclear bomb.

Megatons

The energy equivalent released by 1,000 kilotons (1,000,000 tons) of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. Megaton is typically used as the unit of measurement to express the amount of energy released by a nuclear bomb.

Member State

In the context of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission, “Member State” refers to a State that has signed the CTBT. In the context of the CTBTO, “Member State” refers to a State Party to the Treaty, i.e. a State that has both signed and ratified the CTBT.

Member States

In the context of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission, “Member State” refers to a State that has signed the CTBT. In the context of the CTBTO, “Member State” refers to a State Party to the Treaty, i.e. a State that has both signed and ratified the CTBT.

Microbarograph

Used to monitor and record very small changes in atmospheric pressure detected by a microbarometer.

Microbarometer

An instrument to measure changes in the air pressure caused by infrasonic waves. Microbarometres sit at the centre of infrasound array elements at infrasound monitoring stations. Infrasound waves caught by pipe structures are passed through a summing chamber or manifold to the microbarometre where the waves are measured and recorded.

Microbarometers

An instrument to measure changes in the air pressure caused by infrasonic waves. Microbarometers sit at the centre of infrasound array elements at infrasound monitoring stations. Infrasound waves caught by pipe structures are passed through a summing chamber or manifold to the microbarometre where the waves are measured and recorded.

Middle East Zone Free of Nuclear Weapons as well as Other Weapons of Mass Destruction

The concept of a Middle East Zone Free of WMD was endorsed by all state parties to the Nonproliferation Treaty in the 1995 Review and Extension Conference. The concept of a NWFZ in the Middle East was first introduced by Iran and Egypt in 1974. In April 1990, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak proposed the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of all types of weapons of mass destruction. Egypt submitted this proposal to the United Nations on 16 April 1990. Some Arab nations, however, expressed concern that the initiative might dilute Arab interests by allowing Israel to shift attention from nuclear weapons to other weapons of mass destruction. By the end of 1994, Egypt obtained support from Syria and Saudi Arabia for its position favoring the creation of the WMDFZ as an integral part of the peace process.

Mission capability

A mission capable station is one that properly acquires the appropriate amount of data from the sensors and transmits these data to the CTBTO International Data Centre while meeting the data availability, timely data availability, and data quality requirements imposed on a CTBTO International Monitoring System station.

Moratoria

In the context of the CTBT, a moratorium is the suspension of nuclear testing, based upon a voluntary, unilateral and legally non-binding decision that can be revoked at any time.

Moratorium

In the context of the CTBT, a moratorium is the suspension of nuclear testing, based upon a voluntary, unilateral and legally non-binding decision that can be revoked at any time.

Multilateral

Negotiations, agreements or treaties that effect or are between three or more parties, countries, etc.

Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle

Nobel Laureate and IAEA Director General, Mohamed Elbaradei is perhaps the most prominent figure on the international stage who has suggested that the wide dissemination of the most proliferation-sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle could be the "Achilles' heel" of the nuclear nonproliferation regime. An expert group appointed by ElBaradei in June 2004 issued a commissioned report including proposals for improved controls, such as possible multilateral oversight arrangements of the nuclear fuel cycle. For the complete report, please see: www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/mna-2005_web.pdf

Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicle (MIRV)

A collection of nuclear weapons carried on a single intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) or a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). Using a MIRV warhead, a single launched missile can strike several targets, or fewer targets redundantly. By contrast, a unitary warhead is a single warhead on a single missile.

Mutual deterrence

Deterrence between two adversaries.