1. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT): history and political situation
Once the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) has entered into force, all tests of nuclear weapons will be banned. It will then be almost impossible to develop nuclear weapons in the first place or to improve existing designs in a militarily relevant way. But even before entry into force, the CTBT has set a powerful norm against nuclear testing: While 2048 nuclear tests occurred before the treaty’s opening for signature, only 5 were conducted since – and these provoked universal condemnation.
1. Nuclear test explosions (historical archive footage)
2. Treaty opens for signature on 24 September 1996 at the UN General Assembly in New York: picture of first CTBTO Executive Secretary Wolfgang Hoffmann of Germany, UNGA in session, President Bill Clinton and other Heads of State (from Russia, China and France) signing the Treaty
3. Statement in support of the CTBT by UNSG Ban Ki-moon, summer of 2007, explaining why the CTBT is important for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament and international peace and security, and urges countries to support the Treaty.
4. Shot of Vienna International Centre, UN in Vienna where the CTBTO is headquartered. Meeting of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission, the executive organ of the CTBTO consisting of all 180 Member States; Tibor Tóth, CTBTO Executive Secretary speaking
5. CTBTO Staff from all over the world
2. Verification regime of the CTBT: International Monitoring System and On-Site inspections
The CTBTO is building a global monitoring network to make sure that no nuclear tests will go unnoticed. When complete, the system will consist of nearly 340 stations, located in 89 countries. Seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound stations will detect any movement underground, in the oceans or in the atmosphere. Radionuclide stations will sniff the air for any signs of radioactivity. The network is already 75% or three-quarters complete, creating an important deterrent against potential violators already at this time. On-site inspections to search a suspicious location for signs of a nuclear explosion will also be part of the verification regime once the Treaty enters into force.
1. Map showing the International monitoring stations which will have 337 monitoring stations in 89 countries when completed. Today, nearly 250 stations are installed and operational, which means that they send data in real time to the CTBTO in Vienna and to the CTBTO Member States.
2. Pictures of stations – seismic (vault and boreholes; monitors underground), infrasound (pattern on the ground; monitors above ground), hydroacoustic (monitors the oceans); station building/installation in remote locations (air plane), seismic station in snow, hydroacoustic station on shore/in water.
3. On-site inspections – helicopter over flight, cars transporting equipment, set up camp