Page 3: 1994-96 Entry into force formula

The EIF formula cont.

However, China and Pakistan endorsed the draft, and India subsequently withdrew all of its facilities from the IMS, effectively severing all cooperative links with the CTBT. India then reiterated its position that the Treaty must not enter into force without a timetable for disarmament, also arguing that India would not be coerced into signing a Treaty that impinged on its sovereign right to act in accordance with its own supreme national interest.

Chairman Ramaker was determined to conclude the negotiations in time to submit the Treaty to the 51st session of the United Nations General Assembly. At this stage, the negotiations had reached fever pitch, with delegates holding meetings at all hours of the day. The exhausting pace of the negotiations and the pressure to complete the draft Treaty before the deadline placed the delegates under enormous pressure.

As the final entry into force formula, it was decided that the Treaty would enter into force 180 days (i.e. six months) after all the 44 States that possessed nuclear reactors and research reactors had deposited their instruments of ratification with the United Nations Depositary.

On 28 June 1996, after making no headway during open-ended consultations in the preceding few days, Ramaker presented a revised Treaty that he believed had garnered the most support during the negotiations. This text contained a list of “Annex 2” States compiled from the International Atomic Energy Agency’s April 1996 edition of “Nuclear Power Reactors in the World”, which identified countries that possessed nuclear research and/or power reactors. These Annex 2 countries were also part of the Conference on Disarmament and had participated in CTBT negotiations in 1996.

It was decided that the Treaty would enter into force 180 days (i.e. six months) after all 44 Annex 2 States had deposited their instruments of ratification with the United Nations Depositary.