Which Nuclear Weapon State has articulated a “no first use” pledge?

China. In 1964, China adopted a universal no-first-use pledge. This is a pledge on the part of a nuclear weapon State not to be the first party to use nuclear weapons in a conflict or crisis.

China also provides non-nuclear weapon states with unconditional “negative security assurances”. This is a pledge by a nuclear weapon state that it will not use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear weapon state.

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