Which countries challenged the de facto international norm against nuclear testing in the late 1990s?

India conducted two sets of underground tests, code-named “Shakti (Power) ‘98”, on 11 and 13 May 1998 at its Pokhran underground testing site. In contrast to its initial nuclear test in 1974, this time there were no claims that these were “peaceful tests”. Pakistan responded 15 days later when it conducted two sets of underground tests at its Ras Koh range on 28 and 30 May, respectively.

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