Treaty - Four Years Old
1. "Significant international events, such as the 2000 Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference (New York, 24 April to 19 May 2000), and the United Nations Millennium Summit (New York, 6 to 8 September 2000) have both added momentum to the signature and ratification processes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)", remarked Wolfgang Hoffmann, Executive Secretary for the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Preparatory Commission), on the occasion of the CTBT´s fourth anniversary. "An additional 11 States have ratified the Treaty so far this year, while five more States have joined the list of Signatories. This clearly indicates the high level of political support that the CTBT is receiving, with the number of signatures currently standing at 160 and ratifications at 63. Continued international support will facilitate the fulfilment of the Treaty´s goal of universal membership and early entry into force".
2. Over the last year, the CTBTO Preparatory Commission has made good progress on the establishment of the Treaty´s global verification regime*, and work on the International Monitoring System (IMS) network is well underway. This network is designed to register vibrations underground, in the seas and in the air as well as to detect radioactive material released into the atmosphere. Many stations are now fully operational. The first seismological stations that were built in their entirety by the Commission began transmitting data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna in April 2000. The IDC is currently receiving data from 109 IMS stations around the globe.
3. Three primary seismological stations were certified on 28 July 2000: PS09 (Yellowknife, Canada), PS27 (Hamar, Norway), and PS47 (Mina, Nevada, United States). By the end of 2000, it is anticipated that an additional 15 stations will have been certified. To date, 280 legal arrangements have been undertaken involving work at the sites of stations in over 60 States. Both the seismological and hydroacoustic networks are now about 30 per cent operational, and some 10 per cent of the infrasound and radionuclide networks are now functioning.
4. Over 40 States are currently able to access data and products from the IDC. Data quality and availability will further improve as more IMS stations are established, existing stations upgraded and the satellite communication system for data transmission extended.
5. The Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) is now functional. Global satellite coverage has been made possible through the installation of five GCI hubs and a frame relay infrastructure to link these hubs to the IDC in Vienna.
6. Preparatory activities for on-site inspections have focused on the drafting of an operational manual and the procurement of basic equipment for testing and training purposes.
7. A third International Cooperation Workshop took place in Beijing in June 2000 for the States of South-East Asia, the Far East and the Pacific Region. A fourth Workshop is scheduled to take place in Lima in November 2000 for the States of the Latin American and Caribbean Region. These Workshops aim, inter alia, to highlight the significance of the CTBT for global peace and security, and to promote signature and ratification. They also explore the possible uses of the verification technologies, IMS data and IDC products, for scientific and civil purposes, and examine the potential for regional or international cooperation in collecting, analysing and using these data.
8. The payment of assessed contributions is an important barometer to gauge the commitment and support of the States Signatories to the Organization´s work.
Almost 96 per cent of the contributions to the 1999 budget were paid and, to date, some 92 per cent of the contributions for 2000 have been received.
9. As at 19 September, the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission had a total of 242 staff members from 70 States Signatories.
The 63 States that have deposited their instruments of ratification of the CTBT are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kiribati, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Mali, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and Uzbekistan.
Thirty of the 44 States listed in the Treaty, whose ratification is necessary for the Treaty to enter into force, have deposited ratification instruments (indicated in boldface in the paragraph above).
* The CTBT´s verification regime includes the International Monitoring System (IMS) of 321 seismological, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations, supported by 16 radionuclide laboratories; the International Data Centre (IDC), where data from IMS facilities are collected, processed, analysed, and made available to member States; and on-site inspections (OSI), a final verification measure, which would take place only under the stringent requirements set out in the Treaty.