Issue 19: September 2012

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In this 19th issue, the Foreign Ministers of Chile and Finland, Alfredo Moreno and Erkki Toumioja, make a strong political pitch for the Treaty and also highlight the contribution of CTBT verification data for disaster mitigation. They are joined by two prominent South Asian thinkers: former UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs Jayantha Dhanapala, and Hindustan Times Foreign Editor Pramit Pal Chaudhuri.

Nuclear physicist Siegfried Hecker explains why nuclear armed States stand to gain more than they lose from CTBT ratification and Tatsujiro Suzuki, Vice Chairman of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission, provides an invaluable insight into the Fukushima accident. Elena Sokova from the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation explains why nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation education should be sustainable and global, with the CTBTO’s Capacity Development Initiative a welcome development in this field.

Ik Bum Kang from the Korea Institute of GeoScience and Mineral Resources outlines some of the challenges of operating and maintaining primary seismic station PS31, one of the CTBTO’s closest station to the North Korean nuclear test site. Former CTBTO staff member Kirsten Haupt describes how practice makes future on-site inspection inspectors perfect, and guest writer Angela Leuker how the perception of nuclear war has changed over recent decades.

The CTBT provides the legal framework for a prohibition well grounded in the collective conscience of humankind: nuclear testing has become a policy option truly deprived of legitimacy and as such it finds no place in the conduct of States in the 21st Century. Chilean Foreign Minister Alfredo Moreno
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Verification data provided by the CTBTO contributes to disaster prevention and mitigation and therefore serves as a useful diplomatic opportunity to convince States to sign and ratify the Treaty, writes Chile's Foreign Minister Alfredo Moreno, who also emphasizes the data’s potential and encourages more civil institutions around the globe to take advantage.

The verification system's usefulness extends way beyond its original purpose of monitoring compliance with the CTBT.Finnish Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja
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As one of the organizers of the CTBT Ministerial Meeting in New York on 27 September, Finland’s Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja states that while the current voluntary moratorium on nuclear weapon tests is important, it cannot be a substitute for a global ban. In addition, he points out the significant role of the CTBTO not only in detecting nuclear explosions but also in contributing to human welfare.

Opposing the CTBT because it fails to deliver complete disarmament is tantamount to opposing speed limits on roads because they fail to prevent accidents completely.Former UN Under-Secretary General for Disarmament Affairs Jayantha Dhanapala
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Former UN Under-Secretary General for Disarmament Affairs, Jayantha Dhanapala praises Indonesia’s ratification of the CTBT and argues that each additional ratification sends a clear political message to the remaining hold-out States.

There are also a number of other reasons why India should take another look at the CTBT. In India, the Treaty's civil and scientific applications are largely unknown.Foreign editor of Hindustan Times, Pramit Pal Chaudhuri
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Foreign editor of Hindustan Times, Pramit Pal Chaudhuri, states that when New Delhi declared Pokhran II a complete success, this in effect indicated that India does not need to conduct more tests. In this case, India’s current moratorium could be extended indefinitely and transmuted into a CTBT signature-cum-ratification.

Disarmament and non-proliferation issues should become much more prominent in academic institutions, both in undergraduate and graduate schools. Elena Sokova, Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
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Even though the 2002 UN resolution on non-proliferation education received wide support, its implementation in the form of specific programmes lags behind, writes Elena Sokova from the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation. A growing interest in nuclear issues combined with the desire for a strengthened mandate reinforce her belief that high-quality disarmament and non-proliferation education should be comprehensive, sustainable, and truly global.

For the United States, it is primarily international norms that constrain it from testing. There is a strong desire by some to have the United States lead the international non-proliferation regime. Unfortunately, that's not what Washington has done by failing to ratify the CTBT.Siegfried Hecker, former Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory
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Countries tested nuclear weapons for technical, political and military reasons. Even though Siegfried Hecker, former Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, mentions the positive aspects of nuclear testing, he also explains why it is critical to erect as many barriers as possible to prevent the resumption of testing, the most important barrier being the CTBT’s entry into force.

In short, the accident, although directly caused by an historic earthquake and tsunami, was preventable and thus it was a "man-made accident”.Tatsujiro Suzuki, Japan Atomic Energy Commission
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How can we control nuclear weapons if we cannot control nuclear energy, asks Tatsujiro Suzuki of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission in his article. Highlighting the main points raised by the Japanese government investigation committee and the independent investigation committee, Suzuki provides an invaluable insight into the Fukushima accident in March 2011.

Monday 9 October 2006 is a day that will remain permanently etched in my memory.Ik Bum Kang, Former Project Manager of PS31
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Operating and maintaining a seismic station located just 130 km from the border with North Korea can be a challenging task. Former Project Manager of primary seismic station PS31 Ik Bum Kang describes the key role his station plays in detecting nuclear explosions.

Experience shows that simulations and role play are efficient tools for testing the procedures and techniques of an on-site inspection.Former CTBTO staff member Kirsten Haupt
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Conducting an on-site inspection (OSI) involves a huge amount of technical and logistical preparations. Former CTBTO staff member Kirsten Haupt describes some of the exercises leading up the next full-scale simulated OSI in Jordan in 2014, including the launch phase and testing the logistical aspects of running a base camp.

How things have changed! Back in the 1950s and 60s, the nuclear threat was almost impossible to avoid. For a start, nuclear testing was commonplace; even announced in the media with a certain sense of national pride.Special guest writer Angela Leuker
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The nuclear inheritors can help forge historical change. Yet many young people today are unaware of the existence of global nuclear arsenals.

Editorial 2 [PDF]
CTBT signatures and ratifications
as of 3 September 2012
3 [PDF]
The CTBT and its data: A powerful instrument for peace and human security
by Alfredo Moreno, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Chile
4 [PDF]
Duel dividends: The CTBT strengthens global security architecture and benefits the whole world
by Erkki Tuomioja, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Finland
7 [PDF]
Defusing the nuclear powder keg
by Jayantha Dhanapala, Former UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs
10 [PDF]
Nuclear testing times: In India, membership of the CTBT is not on the agenda. But perhaps it's time to reconsider
by Pramit Pal Chaudhuri, Foreign Editor, Hindustan Times
12 [PDF]
Disarmament and non-proliferation education: Recent developments and the way forwardby Elena K. Sokova, Executive Director, Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
16 [PDF]
A winning gambit: Nuclear armed States stand to gain more than they lose from CTBT ratificationby Siegfried Hecker, Former Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory 19 [PDF]
The Fukushima nuclear accident: Lessons learned and possible implications
by Tatsujiro Suzuki, Vice Chairman, Japan Atomic Energy Commission
24 [PDF]
Helping to make the world a safer place - A crucial link in a global network of monitoring stations: primary seismic station PS31
by Ik Bum Kang, Principal Researcher, Koria Institute of GeoScience and Mineral Resources
28 [PDF]
Certified International Monitoring System facilities
as of 3 September 2012
33 [PDF]
Practice makes perfect: Getting ready for the next full inspection simulationby Kirsten Haupt, former CTBTO Staff Member 34 [PDF]
A grim, unwanted legacy byAngela Leuker, CTBTO Public Information writer and multimedia producer 38 [PDF]