Issue 23: April 2015

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The 23rd issue of Spectrum contains a number of high-calibre political and verification-related contributions.

Commissioner of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission and former UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs, Nobuyasu Abe, outlines a range of measures to further consolidate the no-test norm, including completing the establishment of the verification regime while working in parallel on the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).

Vice Chairman of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and former UK Defence Secretary, Des Browne, points out that: “The CTBTO has fulfilled its task and built a remarkable verification regime. It’s time to be honest about that and remove the word ‘preparatory’ from its name.”

Former UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, Sérgio Duarte, highlights the importance of finally turning the de-facto global moratorium on nuclear testing into a firm legal ban by bringing the CTBT into force.

The CTBTO’s first Executive Secretary, Wolfgang Hoffmann, describes the organization’s remarkable evolution from its establishment up until the present day, and outlines ways in which the Group of Eminent Persons is helping to promote the CTBT’s entry into force.

Former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd argues that “movement by the United States and China is not only central to advancing the CTBT's entry into force, it would also constitute a major confidence and security building measure between Beijing and Washington at a time when U.S.-China relations are entering a new phase.”

This issue of Spectrum has been published to coincide with the 2015 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Treaty which entrenches the promise of a universal nuclear test ban. In her article, President of the NPT Review Conference and Senior Adviser to the Foreign Minister at the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Taous Feroukhi, explains how the CTBT helps to bridge gaps between the diverging interests of NPT Member States.

Director of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy, Ellen Williams, chaired the Committee of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 2012 which reviewed technical issues related to the CTBT. In this interview she reflects on the main issues the report addressed and its significance, three years after its release.

Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, Rebecca Johnson, draws lessons from the CTBT’s negotiations in the mid-1990s and highlights the powerful dynamics of the new humanitarian disarmament discourse.

The Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) in Jordan in late 2014 was a milestone for the development of the CTBT’s on-site inspection (OSI) regime. This issue features the personal reflections of three of the key protagonists involved in IFE14: Director of the CTBTO’s OSI Division, Oleg Rozhkov; Director, CTBT and nuclear disarmament at the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office, Malcolm Coxhead; and Chief of the Equipment and Implementation Section, OSI Division, Gregor Malich.

With the next CTBT: Science and Technology 2015 Conference (SnT2015) fast approaching, Project Executive of SnT2015 and Director of the CTBTO’s International Data Centre Division, Randy Bell, stresses the importance of continued collaboration with the scientific community.

The CTBTO’s new International Monitoring System (IMS) Director, Nurcan Meral Özel, describes how she envisages the IMS evolving under her leadership and the challenges of maintaining some of the earliest IMS facilities. And IMS Infrasound Engineering Officer, James Robertson, chronicles the extreme weather conditions he and his colleague and staff from the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory encountered during the installation and certification of infrasound station IS40 in Papua New Guinea.

Geophysicist at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Milton Garces, describes how he uses data from CTBTO infrasound stations to study volcanoes and identify early warning signals of hazardous eruptions.

And in a new feature, the ‘People’ page acknowledges members of the international community who have recently received awards for their contributions to nuclear disarmament and international security, and also introduces the Director of the CTBTO’s Administration Division, Thierry Dubourg.


INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Page PDF
     
Editorial 2 [PDF]
     
CTBT signatures and ratifications
as of 22 April 2015
3 [PDF]
     
The Group of Eminent Persons (GEM)
4 [PDF]
Cementing the trend away from nuclear weapons
By Nobuyasu Abe, Commissioner of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission
5 [PDF]
Verifying the nuclear test-ban: A regime that works
By Des Browne, Vice Chairman of the Nuclear Threat Initiative
6 [PDF]
The nuclear test-ban and international law
By Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte, Former UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs
7 [PDF]
A view on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)
By Wolfgang Hoffmann, Executive Secretary Emeritus of the CTBTO
8 [PDF]
A U.S.-China roadmap for CTBT ratification
By Kevin Rudd, Former Australian Prime Minister
9 [PDF]
     
Two treaties closely intertwined
By Taous Feroukhi, Senior Advisor to the Foreign Minister, Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
10 [PDF]
     
Assessing the Treaty's verifiability
Interview with Ellen Williams, Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E)
13 [PDF]
     
Banning nuclear explosions and the quest for nuclear disarmament
By Rebecca Johnson, Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy
16 [PDF]
     
Certified International Monitoring System facilities
as of 22 April 2015
19 [PDF]
     
A successful conclusion to the Integrated Field Exercise 2014:
The CTBTO’s largest ever on-site inspection exercise

By Oleg Rozhkov, Director of the On-Site Inspection (OSI) Division; Malcolm Coxhead, Director, CTBT and nuclear disarmament at the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office; Gregor Malich, Chief of the Equipment and Implementation Section, OSI Division
20 [PDF]
     
Conference Announcement
CTBT: Science and Technology 2015 Conference
By Randy Bell, Director, International Data Centre Division
26 [PDF]
     
The International Monitoring System (IMS): A Globe-Spanning Construction Project
Interview with Nurcan Meral Özel, Director of the IMS Division
27 [PDF]
     
5th Workshop on operation and maintenance of the IMS
5 to 9 October 2015, Vienna International Centre
29 [PDF]
     
Rain or Shine... Installing Infrasound Station IS40 in Papua New Guinea
By James Robertson, Infrasound Engineering Officer, IMS Division
30 [PDF]
     
Erratic Furnaces of Infrasound: Volcano Acoustics
By Milton Garcés, Geophysicist at the University of Hawaii at Manoa
33 [PDF]
     
People 36 [PDF]