The Earth as a complex system

Interpreting observations from the Treaty’s verification system depends on understanding the Earth as a system, with dynamic atmospheric transport and ocean circulation, reflection and conversion of energy at multiple boundaries, and ubiquitous natural events that generate signals and change background levels. Understanding the Earth as a system is crucial to the resolution and correct interpretation of signals from nuclear test explosions. Further, the Treaty’s verification system may provide data for new understanding of, or application to, natural events, the changing environment, hazard identification, and other scientific and civil applications. This session welcomes studies of the Earth system that may improve signal interpretation and thus contribute to verification effectiveness. This session also welcomes contributions that discuss the application of Treaty data to understanding the natural environment, how the Treaty’s verification regime may contribute to the mitigation of natural hazards, and how the Treaty’s verification technologies could address important scientific questions.