Group of Eminent Persons (GEM)
To ensure an innovative and focused approach to advance the CTBT’s ratification by the remaining Annex 2 States, a group comprising eminent personalities and internationally recognized experts was launched on 26 September 2013 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. Through their expertise, experience and political standing, this Group of Eminent Persons (GEM) supports and complements efforts to promote the Treaty’s entry into force as well as reinvigorating international endeavours to achieve this goal. As Presidents of the Article XIV process for the period 2015 to 2017, the Foreign Minister of Japan, Fumio Kishida, and the Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan, Erlan Idrissov, are ex-officio members of the GEM.
Members of the GEM last met on the margins of the CTBT Ministerial Meeting on 13 - 14 June 2016 in Vienna, Austria, where they adopted the group's Vienna declaration. At the Ministerial Meeting, Angela Kane delivered a statement on behalf of the GEM.
Before, the group gathered in Hiroshima, Japan in August 2015, where they discussed different approaches and modes of action to assist the Executive Secretary in securing the CTBT’s entry into force, in addition to focused discussions on the eight Annex 2 States that have not yet ratified the Treaty. In Japan, they adopted the Hiroshima Declaration.
Nobuyasu Abe served as the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs from 2003 to 2006. He was the Ambassador of Japan to the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international organizations in Vienna from 1999 to 2001, and Director-General for Arms Control and Science at the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1997 to 1999. He is currently a Vice-Chairman at the Japan Atomic Energy Commission.
Hans Blix is a diplomat and politician who was the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1978 to 1979. He subsequently served as the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency from 1981 to 1997. From 2000 to 2003, Blix was Executive Chairman of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, which investigated Iraq's compliance with its obligation to be rid of its weapons of mass destruction.
Grigory Berdennikov served as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation from 1992-1993 and from 1999-2001. He was the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva from 1993-1998 and headed the Russian delegation at the negotiations on the CTBT. Berdennikov has served in a number of high-level posts in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, including as director of the Department for Security and Disarmament Affairs and member of the MFA Board (1998-1999), Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the International Organizations in Vienna (2001-2007), and as Ambassador at large (2007-2015). From 2001–2015 Berdennikov was the Governor for the Russian Federation on the IAEA Board of Governors.
Des Browne, Lord Browne of Ladyton, is a British Labour Party politician and a former Member of Parliament. He served as the United Kingdom’s Secretary of State for Defence from 2006 to 2008 and as Secretary of State for Scotland from 2007 to 2008. A member of the House of Lords since 2010, he now serves as Vice-Chairman of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, Convenor of the Top Level Group of UK Parliamentarians for Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, and the Chair of the Executive Board of the European Leadership Network.
Jayantha Dhanapala served as United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs from 1998 to 2003. He served as Ambassador of Sri Lanka to the United States of America from 1995 to 1997 and to the UN Office at Geneva from 1984 to 1987. He is currently the 11th President of the Nobel Peace Prize-winning Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, Deputy Chairman of the Governing Board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), and a member of several other advisory boards of international bodies.
Cristian Diaconescu is currently professor in International Law and President of the Popular Movement Foundation. He served as Romania's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2008 to 2009 and in 2012. Diaconescu sat in the Romanian Senate between 2004 to 2012 and held the position of Vice President of the Senate between 2011 to 2012. In 2004, he served as Minister of Justice. Prior to this, he was Secretary of State for Bilateral Affairs at the Foreign Affairs Ministry and deputy Head of Mission to the UN and the OSCE Mission in Vienna.
Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte
Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte was the UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs from 2007 to 2012. In 2005, Duarte presided over the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. From 2003 to 2004, he served as Brazil's Roving Ambassador for Disarmament Affairs. Prior to this, from 1999 to 2002, he was his country's Permanent Representative to the UN at Vienna and Chairman of the International Atomic Energy Agency Board of Governors. Duarte also served as Ambassador to Nicaragua, Canada and China. Earlier in his career, he was a member of the Brazilian delegations in different UN disarmament fora.
Michel Duclos is Senior Counsellor to the Policy Planning Department at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He served as French Ambassador to Switzerland from 2012 to 2014, as Diplomatic Counsellor to the Minister of the Interior from 2009 to 2012, as French Ambassador to Syria from 2006 to 2009, and as Deputy Permanent Representative of France at the United Nations in New York from 2002 to 2006. From 1994 to 1998 he was Head of Disarmament at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where he was in charge of CTBT negotiations (1994-1996) and of CTBT affairs until 1998.
Wolfgang Hoffmann served as the first Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization from March 1997 until August 2005. Prior to this he was the German Ambassador to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva from 1993 to 1997, where negotiations for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty took place between 1994 and 1996. A lawyer by profession, Hoffmann entered the German Foreign Service in 1965 where he held different positions, especially in the multilateral field.
Igor S. Ivanov is the President of the Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC) and a Professor at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. Previously, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation from 1998 to 2004 and Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation from 2004 to 2007. He holds the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and is a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Angela Kane has served as UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs since 2012. Previous UN posts included Under-Secretary-General for Management from 2008 to 2012 and Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs from 2005 to 2008. Prior to that, Kane served as Director in the Department of Political Affairs and the Department of Public Information. Her prior experience also includes the positions of Principal Officer for Political Affairs with the UN Secretary-General, Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, and a special assignment to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Dina Kawar has served as Permanent Representative of Jordan to the United Nations in New York since August 2014. Previously, she served as Ambassador of Jordan to France (2001- 2013), Ambassador of Jordan to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2002-2013), Ambassador of Jordan to the Holy See (2002-2013), and Ambassador of Jordan to Portugal (2005-2013). Before that, she was Director of the Private Office of His Majesty King Abdullah II (2000-2001), and headed the Bureau of HRH Prince El Hassan (1991-2000), both in Paris, France.
Johannes Kyrle has served as Secretary-General of Austria's Ministry of Foreign Affairs since 2002. During this time he has also been a member of the National Security Council, advising the Federal Government on principal matters of foreign, security and defence policy. From 1997 to 2002 he was the Chief of Protocol at the Austrian Foreign Ministry and the Austrian Ambassador to the Principality of Liechtenstein with residence in Vienna from 1991 to 2002.
Ho-Jin Lee, formerly a career diplomat of the Republic of Korea (ROK) is currently Principal Vice President of the United Nations Association of the ROK. He specializes in East Asian security, arms control and non-proliferation, and nuclear energy. He was the ROK’s Ambassador to Finland from 2008 to 2010, to Hungary from 2003 to 2006, and Ambassador and Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2001 to 2003). He served as a member of the UN Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters from 2004 to 2008 and as its chairman in 2007.
Susan le Jeune d’Allegeershecque
Susan le Jeune d’Allegeershecque has served as UK Ambassador to Austria and Permanent Representative to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Vienna since September 2012. Prior to this, she served as Director of the Human Resources and Member of Board Foreign & Commonwealth Office (2007 - 2012), and Consul General and Counsellor of the Change Management Office at the British Embassy in Washington, United States (2005-2007). Her early experience also includes the Non-Proliferation Department, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, at the UK’s Permanent Representation to the European Community.
Susana Malcorra was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship by Argentine President Mauricio Macri on 10 December 2015. An electrical engineer from Rosario University, Malcorra has an extensive background in the private sector, culminating in managerial positions in IBM Argentina and as CEO of Telecom Argentina. Seeking opportunities beyond the corporate world the Argentine Foreign Minister joined the World Food Program in 2002 as Chief Operating Officer, to be followed by her successive promotions as Under Secretary for Field Support Operations for Peace Keeping Operations at the UN (2008) and Chef de Cabinet for UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in 2012. Her professional career combines unique management and organizational and management change experience as head of large companies together with the unique diplomatic work befitting her high level posts in the international system.
János Martonyi was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary from 2010 to August 2014, a position which he also held from 1998 to 2002. Between 1994 and 1998, and 2002 to 2009, he was Managing Partner of Martonyi and Kajtár, Baker & McKenzie Law Firm in Hungary. Previous political posts have included Administrative State Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1991 to 1994 and at the Ministry for International Economic Relations from 1990 to 1991. He is a professor of International Trade Law at the University of Szeged.
Federica Mogherini has been the European Union’s (EU) High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy since November 2014. Prior to this, she served as Foreign Minister of Italy from February 2014. Before that, she served as President of the Italian delegation to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly and was a member of the Committees on Foreign Affairs and Defence in the Italian parliament. She was elected to the parliament’s Chamber of Deputies in 2008, where she served as Secretary of the Defence Committee and as a member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.
William Perry served as the Secretary of Defense for the United States from 1994 to 1997. Prior to this he was the Deputy Secretary of Defense (1993-1994) and as Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (1977-1981). He is currently the Director of the Preventive Defense Project and serves on the Defense Policy Board, the International Security Advisory Board and the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. Perry is also a Professor at Stanford University, USA, and a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute and the Hoover Institution.
Kevin Rudd joined the Asia Society Policy Institute as its inaugural President in January 2015. He is a member of the Australian Parliament. He was Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) from June to September 2013 and from December 2007 to June 2010. He was the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2010 to 2012. Previously, in Opposition he was the shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2001 until 2006 when he became the leader of the ALP. Prior to joining Parliament, Rudd was a diplomat, a senior adviser and then an official in the Queensland State Government and a business consultant on China.
Ellen Tauscher served as U.S. Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security from 2009-2012. In that role, Tauscher negotiated the NEW START treaty with Russia, represented the U.S. at the U.N. nuclear non-proliferation treaty review conference, and negotiated the bilateral agreements with Poland, Romania, and Turkey for the European Phased Adaptive Approach missile defense system. Tauscher served 7 terms in the U.S. House of Representatives chairing the Strategic Forces subcommittee, which oversees the nuclear weapons stockpile, missile defense program, and national labs. Tauscher has spent the last 20 years as an ardent supporter of the CTBT's ratification.
Sha Zukang served as the United Nations Under-Secretary-General, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, from 2007 to 2012. In 2010, he was nominated as the Secretary-General of the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development. From 2001 to 2007 he served as Permanent Representative of China to the UN Office at Geneva. He established the Department of Arms Control in the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which he headed from 1997 to 2001. As Ambassador of Disarmament Affairs from 1995 to 1997, Sha was China's chief negotiator of the CTBT.
Kairat Abdrakhmanov was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2016. His diplomatic career began in 1993 with positions in a number of political departments at the Foreign Ministry of Kazakhstan, including as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1999 to 2001 and again from 2006 to 2007. Minister Abdrakhmanov has served as the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the United Nations in New York and in Vienna, as well as to the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE), including as Chairperson of the OSCE Permanent Council. He has also served as Ambassador to Israel and Austria, and as Deputy Chief of Mission to the United Kingdom.
Fumio Kishida has been Japan’s Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2012. Prior to this, he served as Chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party’s Diet Affairs Committee from 2011. From 2008 to 2011, he was Minister for Consumer Affairs and Minister for Space Policy. Previously, he served as Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs, Quality- of-Life Policy, Science and Technology Policy, and Regulatory Reform, a position he held from 2007. In 2005, he was appointed Chairman of the Committee on Health, Labour and Welfare of the House of Representatives.