National focal points for CTBTO now in 133 States
As of 1 June 2007, 133 States Signatories have designated their National Authorities or equivalent national focal points for relations with the CTBTO Preparatory Commission. The latest State to have done so is Benin. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) requires States to designate a National Authority in order to facilitate the implementation of the Treaty after its entry into force. Prior to entry into force of the Treaty, the National Authorities cooperate with the CTBTO Preparatory Commission in the establishment of the verification regime. The National Authority can be a Ministry or any other governmental agency that is deemed best to maintain relations with the Commission. In many cases an office within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs assumes the responsibilities of a National Authority for matters relating to the CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Some States Signatories have delegated this task to their respective Ministry of Science and Technology or a related scientific institution. In some instances the Ministry of Defence oversees relations with the Commission. The National Authority of a State Signatory serves as the focal point for other institutions or agencies of that State when dealing with matters related to the CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Before entry into force of the Treaty, this relates mainly to the establishment, operation and maintenance of facilities of the International Monitoring System on the territory of the respective State Signatory. The National Authority can also facilitate the establishment and operation of a National Data Centre to manage the exchange of data with the International Data Centre in Vienna. Currently, 177 States have signed the Treaty and 138 have ratified it. Of the 44 States whose ratification is required for entry into force of the CTBT, 34 have ratified it. Of the 133 States that have a National Authority or an equivalent national focal point, 111 have ratified the Treaty. Four of the 22 States with a designated National Authority that have not yet ratified the Treaty are Annex 2 States: China, Egypt, Indonesia and Israel. The 133 States that have designated a National Authority or an equivalent national focal point are (* Annex 2 States): Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria*, Angola, Argentina*, Armenia, Australia*, Austria*, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh*, Belarus, Belgium*, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil*, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria*, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada*, Chile*, China*, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt*, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland*, France*, Gambia, Georgia, Germany*, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary*, Iceland, Indonesia*, Israel*, Italy*, Jamaica, Japan*, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico*, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway*, Oman, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru*, Philippines, Poland*, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea*, Romania*, Russian Federation*, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia*, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa*, Spain*, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland*, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Turkey*, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine*, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia and Zimbabwe.