Eighth anniversary of the
opening for signature of
the Comprehensive Nuclear-
Today marks the eighth anniversary of the opening for signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This important Treaty bans all nuclear test explosions in any environment. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996, and opened for signature on 24 September 1996. Seventy-one states signed the Treaty on that day, and signatures and ratifications have continued to grow steadily ever since. Since last year's anniversary, the Treaty has been signed by three States, and ratified by eleven. Today, the Treaty has a total of 172 signatures and 117 ratifications.
Despite this impressive number of signatures and ratifications, the Treaty has not yet entered into force. To do so, it must be signed and ratified by the 44 States named in Annex 2 to the Treaty. These States participated in the 1996 Conference on Disarmament, and possessed nuclear power or research reactors at that time. So far, 41 of the Annex 2 States have signed the Treaty, and 32 have ratified it.
Steady progress continues in the establishment of the global verification regime. Consisting of the International Monitoring System (IMS), the International Data Centre (IDC) and additional measures including on-site inspections, the global verification regime is designed to monitor compliance with the Treaty, and must be operational at the time of the Treaty's entry into force. Data collected by the IMS and analysed in the IDC will be used by States, upon entry into force, to monitor Treaty adherence and, if necessary, to reach a decision as to whether or not the Treaty has been contravened. Today, site surveys for 322 facilities, equivalent to 95.5 % of the IMS network, have been completed. Altogether 190 stations have been installed, upgraded or substantially meet specifications, of which 96 are now fully certified. Seventy-eight additional stations are under construction or in contract negotiations. One hundred and thirty-four facilities are contributing data to the IDC.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty plays a vital role in ensuring safety and security in today's world. As the number of Member States grows steadily, the de facto universal moratorium on explosive nuclear testing now in place strengthens. In force or not, the Treaty has proved a highly effective tool in the prevention of explosive nuclear testing.
The 117 States that have deposited their instruments of ratification of the CTBT are Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria*, Argentina*, Australia*, Austria*, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh*, Belarus, Belgium*, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil*, Bulgaria*, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada*, Chile*, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Fiji, Finland*, France*, Gabon, Georgia, Germany*, Greece, Grenada, Guyana, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary*, Iceland, Ireland, Italy*, Jamaica, Japan*, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Lithuania, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico*, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway*, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Peru*, Philippines, Poland*, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea*, Romania*, Russian Federation*, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia*, Slovenia, South Africa*, Spain*, Sudan, Sweden*, Switzerland*, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey*, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine*, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*, Uruguay, Uzbekistan and Venezuela.
* States whose ratification is required for entry into force.
The 172 States that have so far signed the Treaty are: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia, Federated States of, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.