Kazakhstan ratifies Comprehensive
Kazakhstan has deposited its instrument of ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) with the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 14 May 2002, bringing the total number of ratifications to 93. Kazakhstan is the 9th State in the Middle East and South Asia geographical region to ratify the Treaty. Kazakhstan hosts three auxiliary seismological stations at Borovoye, Kurchatov and Aktyubinsk, as well as an infrasound station, also located at Aktyubinsk, and a primary seismic station at Makanchi. These stations form part of the International Monitoring System (IMS), the global network of 337 monitoring facilities being established under the terms of the CTBT to verify Treaty compliance. IMS facilities record data using four complementary technologies – seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide – and are capable of registering vibrations from a possible nuclear explosion underground, in the seas and in the air, as well as detecting radioactive debris released into the atmosphere. The monitoring facilities transmit the data via satellite to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, where the data are used to detect, locate and characterize events. These data and IDC products are made available to the States Signatories for final analysis. The CTBT bans any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion in any environment. Drafted at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, and adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996, the Treaty was opened for signature on 24 September 1996 at United Nations Headquarters in New York. For the CTBT to enter into force, a further 13 of the 44 nuclear-capable States listed in the Treaty must ratify it. ******************* The 93 States that have deposited their instruments of ratification of the CTBT are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guyana, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Latvia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Uruguay, Uzbekistan and Venezuela.